Human-Centred Design Research Synthesis: 2X2 Matrix

Produced by:

Kevin Wijaya
MA Digital Experience Design
Hyper Island Manchester

Music by:

Birocratic – Sombre, Green

Timecode References:

0:31 – (Lund and Tschirgi, 1991)

0:59 – (Sanders and Dandavate, 1999; Koskinen and Battarbee, 2003; Sleeswijk Visser et al. 2005)

1:15 – (Bill Nicholl, 2017)

1:27 – (McDonagh-Philp and Bruseberg, 2000; Creswell, Hanson, Clark Plano and Morales, 2007)

1:43 – (C. Care, personal communication, 23 March 2018)

2:30 – (; Lowy and Hood, 2004; The K12 Lab Wiki)

8:00 – (


Bill Nicholl. (2017). Empathy as an Aspect of Critical Thought and Action in Design and Technology. Critique in Design and Technology Education, pp.153-171.

Creswell, J., Hanson, W., Clark Plano, V. and Morales, A. (2007). Qualitative Research Designs. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(2), pp.252-255. (n.d.). Design Kit. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Mar. 2018].

Koskinen, I., Battarbee, K., and Mattelmäki, T., (2003). Empathic design, user experience in product design. Helsinki: IT Press.

Lowy, A. and Hood, P. (2004). The Power of the 2 x 2 Matrix: Using 2×2 Thinking to Solve Business Problem. John Wiley & Sons.

Lund, A. and Tschirgi, J. (1991). Designing for people: integrating human factors into the product realization process. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 9(4), pp.496-500.

McDonagh-Philp, D. and Bruseberg, A. (2000). Using focus groups to support new product development. Institution of Engineering Designers Journal, 26 (5), 4–9.

Sanders, E.B.-N. and Dandavate, U. (1999). Design for experiencing: new tools. In: C.J. Overbeeke and P. Hekkert, eds. Proceedings of the first international conference on design and emotion, 3–5 November 1999, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology, Delft, 87–92.

Sleeswijk Visser, F., et al. (2005). Contextmapping: experiences from practice. CoDesign, 1 (2), 119–149.

The K12 Lab Wiki. (n.d.). 2X2 Matrix. [online] Available at: [Accessed 24 Mar 2018].